Destructive peer influence may result in deviancy training as peers show others how to rebel against authority and social norms.

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Sep 21, 2022


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1. (100 words)
Watch this video and answer this question,
What type of conflict is normal and what is not?
2. Read this passage and explain this topic. (175 words)
Review of first 4 stages:
Erikson: NeoFreudian – For a concept to be psychosocial means it relates to one’s psychological development in, and interaction with, a social environment. At each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality, but also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of society. Erikson is broader than Freud in his views.
Trust v Mistrust (Birth-1) hearty outcome is not based on amount of food or oral stimulation, but quality of caregiving; trust – sympathetic and loving care; mistrust – not supported; infants withdraw from people and things; if infants are neglected or treated harshly; So if I am a baby and I am crying, if someone comes to comfort me, I develop a sense of trust, but if no one comes, I develop a sense of mistrust.
Autonomy v Shame and Doubt (1-3 years) Assertion of independence –feeding, dressing, toileting, putting away toys; Seeds for individuality ; Use authoritative parenting (parenting that uses reason) to provide guidance and reasonable choices; don’t criticize when child fails at new skills; have reasonable expectations for impulse control and have reasonable free choice. Parents who are over or under controlling have a child who feels forced and shamed and doubts his/her abilities. (personal inadequacy) and doubts his/her abilities to control impulses and act competently on his/her own. Shame means a sense of personal inadequacy.
Initiative v. Guilt: (3-6 years) Oedipal period (guilt) sense of purposefulness; eager to try new tasks; join in activities with peers; discover what they can do with help of adults; ambition and responsibility; strides in conscience development; develops when parents support child’s sense of purpose; Gives insight into what type of person they might become; helps shape identity; if parents demand too much self-control, child experiences guilt
Remember- guilt ( I did something wrong) is easier to resolve than shame (a sense of personal inadequacy) because I can corr3ect my actions, but shame impacts my self-concept and self-esteem.
Industry v. inferiority (Ages 6 – 11) – children discover their own unique talents and capabilities, learn about the division of labor, and moral commitment and responsibility. They learn to work and cooperate with others. Industry also involves a realistic self-concept and pride in accomplishment. If a child has low self-esteem and lacks confidence in his/her ability to do things well, they may feel inadequate. Inferiority develops if negative experiences at home, school, or peers destroy the child’s feelings of competence and mastery as a result of negative responses.
Idenity v. Role Confusion (Adolescence) Adolescents need to define their identity. Who are they? How do they separate themselves in terms of self-definition from their parents, siblings, peers, etc. Identity achievement involves knowing who you are, accepting some goals and values of your parents, culture, etc and rejecting others. If one does not achieve an identity, according to Erikson, that individual will experience role confusion. Erikson discussed 4 types of identities
• Religious – for most adolescents, they maintain the religious identity into which they were born. Some become more or less religious. Usually less for adolescents. Some explore different religious. Some change their religion.
• Political – Often adolescents interest in politics is motivated by parental behavior or current events. They can vote at 18. If they are living at home, they are more likely to vote.
• Ethnic (not discussed by Erikson) Pride in ethnic identity correlates with academic achievement and overall well-being. When adolescents are secure in their own ethnic identity, they can befriend others from different ethnic groups (Berger, 2020, p. 406). From Ch 19, ethnic identity is influenced by education, family, and national politics (Berger, 2020, p. 481).
• Gender – cisgender (gender identity matches biological sex); LGBTQ; note gender dysphoria describes those that are dissatisfied with the gender in which they were born
Marcia (1966, 2011) expanded on Erikson’s work. He identified 4 ways in which adolescents cope with the identity crisis
• Diffusion (also referred to as role confusion). The adolescent does not know or care what his or her identity is. The adolescent is “floating along.”
• Foreclosure: The adolescent goes along with what his/her parents think. They do not question or think critically about their position with regards to issues of identity. This is also common in collectivist cultures who individuals are socialized to think as a group.
• Moratorium- the adolescent explores different identities ie changing majors in college
• Achievement (discussed above)

Family Conflict: What type of conflict is normal and what is not? It is normal for adolescents to conflict with their parents in the process of identity development. If a teenage girl goes shopping for a dress with her parent and wants to wear something more provocative than her parent wants to buy and they “discuss” this, why does this conflict happen? The adolescent is asserting herself and developing an identity. She may not agree with her mother’s choice of outfit and her actions are communicating, “This is who I am.” On the other hand, an adolescent with conduct disorder, who is acts aggressively and rudely to siblings, is a bully, a truant, and shoplifts is in need of psychological assistance. This individual is not displaying normal adolescent conflict.
One can look at family dynamics in terms of communication, support, emotional closeness (connectedness), and control (how much independence is allowed)
Parental monitoring – keeps track of child’s whereabouts, where they are going, what they are doing, and with whom
Helicopter parent – excessive parental monitoring
Familism- family members should support each other to preserve family unity and protect the family from outside forces
Peers – teens select friends with values and interests that match their own and abandon those whose values and interests are different. Peers can be constructive and destructive. Peers are socializing agents. Destructive peer influence may result in deviancy training as peers show others how to rebel against authority and social norms.
Teen romances are not necessarily harmful. Sexual minority adolescents may be targets. Adolescents learn about sex from the media and peers. Sadly, only 25% of adolescents report receiving sexual education from a parent. Schools discuss the topic of sexuality in varying degrees.
Adolescents can experience psychological disorders – major depression –
• Symptoms may include depressed mood, hopelessness, loss of interest in activities you used to enjoy. You may sleep too much or too little, experience a change in appetite or weight, have difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, thoughts of suicide or death. 15% of adolescents experience depression, 1:5 girls and 1:10 boys.
• Suicidal ideation- thoughts about suicide, usually with emotional, intellectual, or cognitive overtones
• Parasuicide – attempted or failed suicide. In 2017, 9% of girls and 6% of boys attempted suicide in the previous year (MMWR, June 15, 2018, in Berger, 2020, p. 417). More girls attempt suicide, but more boys are successful because they use more lethal means
• Cluster suicide – several suicides in a group over a brief span of time.
• What to do if someone tells you they are suicidal: take all threats seriously, do not leave the person alone, call for help National Suicide Prevention Lifeline : 1-800-273-8255; free 24 hour support from the Crisis Text line text HOME to 741-741 (berger, 2020, p. 417)
Lawbreaking–Terms: Prevalence how widespread it is; incidence – how frequently it occurs; prevalence and incidence of law-breaking activity is higher in adolescence. Youth of minority and ethnic groups and boys are more likely to be caught. In addition, boys are more likely to be law breaking. In some, criminal activity ceases by age 21. This is called an adolescence-limited offended]r. If the activity continues throughout life, this is defined as a life-course-persistent-offender. Prevention if adolescent crime: notice early behavior that predicts lawbreaking and change patterns before puberty
Why has adolescent crime decreased in the past 20 years?
• Fewer high school dropouts _ more education, less crime
• More community service rather than prison
• More arrests for misdemeanors; warns parents
• Smaller families so children get more attention
• Better contraception (unwanted children often become delinquents)
• Stricter drug laws
• More immigrants who are law abiding
• Less lead in the vlood. Lead poisoning reduces brain function (Berger 2020, p. 419)
Drug experimentation
• Alcohol and drugs before age 15 make depression, sexual abuse, bullying, and later addiction more likely
• Tobacco – impairs digestion and nutrition slowing down growth- may be damage to heart, lungs, brain, and reproductive system
E Cigarettes – E cigarettes are less damaging to the lungs than conventional cigarettes because they deliver drugs by vapor. Smokers with asthma, heart disease or lung cancer benefit from vaping if it reduces their smoking of combustible cigarettes. (Veldheer et al, 2019, in Berger, p. 423). They are not harmless, however. They deliver fewer harmful chemicals than combustible cigarettes , but one byproduct is benzene, a known carcinogen (Pankow et al., 2017, in Berger , 2020, p 423) Most e cigarettes contain nicotine, sometimes said to be more addictive than heroin. Although illegal for those under 18, they are marketed in kid-friendly flavors. Yet, teens are using them. Most public health doctors advise against them and pediatricians are concerned that if the mother uses cigarettes, fetal and infant lungs could be harmed (Carlsen et al, 2018, in Berger, 2020, p. 423)
• Alcohol –impairs memory and self control; damages the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, may distort reward circuits of the brain lifelong (Guerri & Pascual, 2010, in in Berger, 2020, p. 422)
• Marijuana- Adolescents who smoke marijuana may be more likely to drop out of school, become teenage parents, become depressed and later unemployed
• Prevention – antidrug curriculum and advertisements, parental example, social changes (higher prices, targeted warnings, better law enforcement)
• Generational forgetting – each new generation forgets what the previous one has learned. There is a mistrust of the older generation. Adolescents wish to try forbidden fruit.
Bullying – Attempts to hurt someone else physically or socially. When bullying takes place in school, 2/3 occurs in hallways, cafeterias, schoolyards, bathrooms, or buses. 1/3 occurs in classrooms where teachers are present, 30% unreported (see Berger, 2020, p. 427)
• Slandered by lies and rumors
• Ridiculed or called names
• Threatened by peers and classmates
• Pushed and shoved
• Left out or ignored
• Threatened or injured by a weapon
• Received sexual comments or gestures
Cyberbullying – 60% of boys and girls have been cyber bullied. Girls are more often targetsof online rumor spreading or nonconsensual explicit messages (Anderson, 2018, in Berger, 2020, p. 427)
Why do teens cyberbully
• To get back at the victim
• For entertainment
• To embarrass the victim
• They want to be mean
• To show off for friends
Social media and cyber bullying
• 37% of victims report incidents to their social network
• 40% of victims tell their parents or another adult
• 90% of users witness cyberbullying on their social media site
• 35% of witnesses ignore cyberbullying on their social media site
School anti-bullying programs ( success varies – some programs have no effect. A good program can reduce bullying by 25% or more).
• Increased supervisions of students
• Teachers who promote empathy
• School-wide implementation of anti-bullying policies
• Cooperation among school staff, parents, and professionals across disciplines
• Identification of risk factors for bullying.


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